Fruit trees can live many years in an orchard that has been planted using the proper soil along with various other considerations. Incorrect applications during the building stage may trigger negative consequences for many years, which is especially unacceptable when the product that is lost is important both for producer and the national economy. The climate is a particularly important factor for fruit seedlings to root, grow, produce fruit, generate crops regularly every year and offer diversity of variety types. Depending on the fruit type and variety, plant materials have many distinct requirements (such as climate conditions) that must be considered carefully.
As there are only limited possibilities to interfere with the climate, fruit types and varieties to be planted should be determined in accordance with the climate condition of that area. Local climate conditions can vary greatly and yet fruit type and varieties which can not be grown in standard climate regions can oftentimes be grown in local climates.
The ideal areas for orchard building with respect to topography are places that are partially higher and whose soil and air drainage is better than in surrounding areas. Because cold air drains from up to downward, frost danger is rarely seen in such areas. The inclination of an ascent to one of the directions among North, South, East and West is very important for garden agriculture.
These aspects have values that change according to climate, soil and growing fruit types. Soil is a factor affecting the growth, yield, quality and storage properties of fruit trees. Generally, deep, damp, porous and tractable soils with rich fertilizer content are the most proper garden soils. Rocky areas are not ideal for successful fruit growing. If the soil contains a large percentage of stones and appears cracked, it can still support an orchard and sustain healthy fruit trees with good irrigation and intensive fertilization.
Sandy soils are water resistant, tractable and not ideal for fruit growing if they are largely composed of sand.
Clay soils can be successful support fruit growth with as long as they are well drained and augmented with organic fertilization.
Loamy soils are the most desirable soils for fruit growing and moldy soils that are tractable can also support proper fruit growth. The root length of fruit trees can be between 3 and 26 feet in accordance with the type and variety of characteristics. However, at least 6.5 feet of homogenous soil is necessary for fruit growing.
Groundwater height should be no higher than 3 feet for fruit trees (with the roots close to the soil surface) and 6.5 feet for the others. Many fruit trees are grown successfully between pH levels of 6 and 8 (representing the acid, base and neutral levels of soil). One other thing to bear in mind — salt accumulation in soil causes salinity. Although all kinds of technical and cultural conditions are supplied, growing only one kind of fruit in the same garden for many long years causes infertile growth.
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