2012 International Plumbing Code

2012 International plumbing code brings new acts, working on sewer,water, toilet,wc facility systems in commercial areas are responsible to make the work  safe manner to avoid diseases, of course they are important on agricultural areas.

Listed below are the code editions in effect as of January 1, 2012:

  • International Building Code 2006 Edition
  • International Fuel Gas Code 2006 Edition
  • International Mechanical Code 2006 Edition
  • International Plumbing Code 2006 Edition
  • National Electrical Code 2011 Edition
  • International Fire Code 2006 Edition
  • International Energy Conservation Code 2009 Edition
  • International Residential Code 2006 Edition

uniform plumbing code
The Act requires local governments that elect to enforce these codes within their jurisdictions to adopt administrative procedures and penalties in order to locally enforce any of these mandatory codes. Also, any applicable appendices of these codes must be adopted locally in order to be enforceable within a specific local jurisdiction.

The Act also made the following optional codes available for local government adoption and enforcement. Local governments choosing to enforce any of the below optional codes must adopt the code(s) they wish to enforce, as well as administrative procedures and penalties.

  • International Property Maintenance Code 2006 Edition
  • International Existing Building Code 2006 Edition
  • National Green Building Standard 2008 Edition

Behind those ;

Major codes used in the United States are

  • NATIONAL PLUMBING CODE
    Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA)
  • UNIFORM PLUMBING CODE
    International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO)
  • INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE (ICC)
    International Codes Council
  • STANDARD PLUMBING CODE
    Southern Building Code Congress international (SBCCI)
  • ONE AND TWO FAMILY DWELLING CODE
    Council of American Building Officials
  • NATIONAL STANDARD PLUMBING CODE
    Plumbing, Heating, Cooling Contractors – National Association
  • ANSI A40, SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR PLUMBING

The codes are adopted and altered by the local authorities to fit local needs.

Throughout the world different countries and jurisdictions have their local or common (as within EU) set of codes for different type of work. For the engineer it is always necessary to check and adapt the local regime.

You can check 2012 International Plumbing Code on wikipedia , wikipedia aricle is a uniform plumbing, if you interested in 2012 International Plumbing Code , http://www.constructionbook.com/2012-international-plumbing-codes/

The Georgia Amendments are can be found DCA State, check google for it.

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An optical instrument the borescope used for seeing inside tight spaces, consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with an optical relay inside so that the view through a lens or window at one end of the tube may be seen from a lens or eyepiece in the opposite end of the tube .

Borescopes also useful in agricultural purposes, underground soil investigations.

Borescopes often used in such applications like:
• Home inspection: Inspect in walls for mold, insect infestation, electrical wire or water pipe location
• HVAC: Inspect inside ducts, behind motors and compressors
• Automotive: View inside or around engines and transmissions
• Government: Safety and security inspections
• Industrial: Inspect weld integrity, process equipment, gears, molding machines
• Aerospace: Aircraft inspections for contamination, debris, cracks or other damagevideo borescope

Today, technology brings too many features to borescopes :

A built-in wireless transmitter in your camera cable control allows you to transmit
video up to 100ft (30m) from the measurement point to your monitor
• 6mm diameter camera head with 1m semi-rigid cable retains configured shape
• 5.7″ color LCD TFT with high definition 640 x 480 resolution
• 320° camera probe rotation
• Mini, high-resolution water-proof (IP57) camera head
• Rugged water and drop proof housing (IP67/2m)
• Non-slip ergonomic handles for ambidextrous use
• SD memory card included to store >14,600 images
• Video recording (up to 4 hours) with Voice annotation
• AV output for viewing images and video directly on a monitor
Video and images can be transferred to a PC via the SD card or USB output

for more information about borescopes, on wiki , if you think to buy borescope you can choose some professional stores like http://www.professionalequipment.com

 

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Indian economy is an agrarian economy, which clearly implies the importance of agriculture in the country. Although, the economic growth pattern depicts declining trend in the contribution of the agricultural sector, it still forms the crux of socio-economic growth. As for 2012, India ranks on the second position in the world in regards to farm output, which is certainly remarkable. According to GDP in 2009, agriculture contributed for about 16.6% of the GDP along with all allied sectors. It may be argued that the growth is not on the top of its potential, but the changes are manifestly positive.

Recent trends in the economy

Taking a look at 2012, it can be predicted that Indian agriculture is bound to grow in coming months. Currently, India is leading the world in regards to many fresh fruits and vegetables. Also, other mentionable produce from the country includes jute, millets and castor oil. As for 2011, Indian produced the second largest amount of rice and wheat. According to 2011 data, the country ranked third in the production of dry fruits, textile raw materials, tuber crops, eggs, coconut, farm fish, and many other vegetables. In the market of livestock and poultry, it ranks on the fifth spot with highest grow rates.

The recent developments in Indian agriculture in 2011 show some extraordinarily appealing trends. Although, the growth of agriculture has been check by the growth of other sectors, 2011 was a favorable year for Indian agriculture. There was a 6.3% increase in the production of wheat bring the count to 85.9 million, while rice recorded 95.3 million tons, which is 7 % increase as compared to the previous year. Growth rates mentioned above have been noted with the country facing regular and normal monsoon season.

What has changed in recent times?

It is notable to see that Indian agriculture has received significant help from the government. Both the state and central level governance are to be applauded for the growth. In spite of the fact that Indian economy is fighting badly with the seeds of corruption at every level, there has been a certain improvement in many sectors of agriculture that cannot be denied and overlooked. Apart from the staple foods, the industry of aquaculture and catch fishery has almost doubled in the past decade. India currently exports 600,000 metric tons of fish and aquatic products to the globe, something that is a celebrated fact.

What can be expected in 2012?

In the year 2012, it would be intriguing to see how the economy fares as the peak seasons of products come closer. India faces many challenges in the current year like lack of proper policy implementation, lack of organized retail structure, and small size of land holdings. The growth of infrastructure in the country may not be phenomenal, but the development has certainly helped the agriculture. With the budget yet under wraps, the agriculture sector has to wait and see the plans that have been designed for growth and sustenance. Provided monsoons arrive on time and other factors remain constant, there should be a significant increase in the growth of all sectors of the Indian agriculture.

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Chinese Cabbage Production

Chinese Cabbage is used by many women in the kitchen. It adds yummy taste in pasta, salad and noodles. Its outer tough leaves are often used for covering the steam fish. You can make a variety of foods with the mean of it. The stalk of this vegetable also used as a celery.  This vegetable is originated from the China thus a common ingredient in Chinese cuisine.
Today, I am here to guide you about Chinese Cabbage production. Before I start my guide, I would like to inform you about a different varieties of this vegetable and these are Michili, Pe-tsai,Wong bok, Pac Choy, etc.

What  Climate is the best for Cabbage Production?

First thing that you must keep in mind before growing this vegetable in your garden or greenhouse is the climate. Chinese cabbage doesn’t tolerate hot weather so if you want to get good results from production then you should start its cultivation before extreme hot weather. Cool temperature seems to be the best for the production of cabbage. It grows well when it exposes to direct sun light however it can tolerate shade as well.

How To Grow Chinese Cabbage in your Garden ?

There are five simple steps that you need to follow for growing Chinese cabbage in your garden or greenhouse:

Step No.1
Prepare the ground: You first need to prepare the ground bed for this vegetable. It would be better if you plant it deep in the soil. Another thing which you need to consider before planting it is the pH level of the soil; it should be  6.5-7. In case you don’t have any idea about the pH level of your soil then you can get such info by applying some tests. (detail of tests is available on the web, just search). You can start using fertilizer in garden one week before the planting.

Step No.2
Planting: Once you prepare the ground, next thing to do is to plant the vegtable. You need to sow seed in 1/5 deep in the soil. You can maintain 14 inch difference between the rows while the distance among the plants should be 2 inch if you want to keep this vegetable thin. Seedlings normally appear within 2 weeks.

Step No.3
Watering : It is the most important step if you want to get the good result of our gardening efforts. This vegetable needs a plenty of water for growth. In case you do not spray the water timely, you have to face plant fungal dilemma.

Step No. 4
Fertilizing: Another key for getting the success in Chinese cabbage production is the spraying the fertilizer on plant time to time. You should dust fertilizer around the rows one month after the planting. When you see the appearance of cabbage head then it is the time when you need to use the fertilizer again on the ground.

Step No. 5
Harvesting: Normally this plant matures in less than 4 months. Best time to harvest this plant is before dry weather. You can cut the head of this vegetable above the soil.

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Growing Mushrooms in Winter Outdoors

It’s a little late to start growing mushrooms outdoors at this time of the year, but it can be done on beds of straw or wood chips if you start the process in the fall. You can also grow mushrooms such as shiitake and oyster types on logs which have been impregnated with mushroom spores or spawn.

If you are new to mushroom growing, then you could start with the easiest ones to grow, which are shiitake or oysters and then move on to chanterelles and morels or other mushrooms in the gourmet class. At the moment growing mushrooms in your home is the best option, depending of course, on where you live. If the temperatures in winter where you live do not fall below a comfortable temperature, then you can grow mushrooms outside at any time of year.

You will need mushroom spores (seeds) to start off with and of course you can buy logs and mushroom kits to start you off from suppliers online or in your local area. Mushroom cultures can be kept warm outside by insulating them in a bed of straw and even a snow fall will keep them cozy.

If you start now you may need a log which has been freshly cut, as the ones on forest floors will be covered with fungi already, even if only with invisible spores. The best time to cut a log from a live tree is in spring, however when the sap is rising. Hard wood such as oak is best for mushroom-growing purposes. You will need to drill holes in the log to around one and a half inches deep and five inches apart in rows four inches apart. Then you inoculate the logs with your mushroom spawn and plug the holes either with Styrofoam or melted wax. The log can be placed under some bushes in shade in your garden and left for some months, again, depending on temperature. In North America, where temperatures are cold in winter, it could take between 6 months and a year for the spawn to have run through the log and be ready to fruit. This will happen when the log is exposed to rain or to a shower from a hose. You can get several crops a year from a mushroom log although it has to rest between crops.

Another way of growing mushrooms outdoors is to plant saplings where you already have a mushroom patch, as these will assist growth. You can also inject mushroom spores into the roots of established trees, or spread mushroom spawn at the foot of them.

Different types of mushrooms fruit at different times of year, so it is best to check out the times they fruit before deciding on which to start now.

You can, of course, start off a mushroom culture indoors and transfer them outside when the temperatures start to rise. If you live in a country where the winter climate is cold, then this would be the best idea.

Home-grown mushrooms are wonderful as you can get your favourite gourmet ones and feast on them almost all through the year.

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Guide to Growing Leeks in Winter Conditions

Leeks are a popular winter vegetable belonging to the onion family but they are much easier to grow as compared to onions. They are available for consumption when most other vegetables are expensive, scarce or short in supply. Here is a leeks guide explaining how to grow leeks in winter conditions discussing various aspects of gardening:

Site and soil

Leeks are tolerant plants, which do not require any specific soil conditions except that the soil should not be water logged and freshly manured. The soil should be rich, firm, light moist and the site should be open and sunny with tolerable shade. Growing leeks require a slightly alkaline soil, which can be obtained by lightly dressing the soil with dolomite or lime if the pH of the soil is below 6.5. The leeks should not be grown at the same site each year as this, increases the chances of diseases and pests. To prepare the soil, dig it well, remove any weeds and work with plenty of manure to improve water retention. You can even improve the water drainage by mixing some horticultural sand. A good spread of fertilizer a week prior to sowing is ideal for growing leeks.

Sowing the leek seeds

Sowing leeks in winter means that you would get summer and autumn leeks as they need a long growing time of at least six months to reach a proper size. You can sow the leeks in two ways; either you may sow them directly at the site where they would grow or sow the seeds in a seed bed and then transplant them. Choosing either of the ways depends on personal requirement. If sowing seeds in the seed bed, sow them in rows, 30cms apart. Sow the seeds in shallow groove about one cm deep, cover it lightly with soil and water it. After about a month, thin out the plants every 15cms.

Planting the leeks

The ideal time to transplant leeks is when they attain the thickness of a pencil and are nearly eight inches tall. You can use a trowel or dibber to make vertical holes about six inches deep with a diameter of 2 inches. Trim the leaves and the roots and put the young leek in the hole and fill it with water.

Cultivation and after care of leeks

Growing leeks as mentioned is easy since they do not require much attention except that weeds are not allowed to grow. You have to see that the soil is well watered especially during the dry season. To keep the weeds down, hoe between the rows regularly. Cut the leaves that grow to be too long as they would tail on the ground and start to decay. Frost does not affect leeks so it is not a problem to grow leeks in winter.

Blanching the leeks

The leeks guide emphasizes on blanching the leeks so that more edible leeks can be produced. You need to blanch at several stages and for this you need to exclude the light from the stem so that there is prevention of chlorophyll production. You can mound soil around the stem or tie thin layers of cardboard or newspaper around the stem.

Harvesting the leeks

The best way to harvest the leeks is by using a spade as this would not break the stem. Leeks sown in winter would be ready for consumption in summer. They can be consumed fresh or after being refrigerated.

Things to note

When growing leeks you have to be careful of the pests and diseases that may harm the leeks. Although they are not susceptible to pest attacks yet some common pests that might damage the leeks are the onion fly, leek moth and the Allium Leaf Miner. Being biennial leeks can be grown twice and the seeds obtained.

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If there is one thing a garden hates, the title would fall upon spider mites. While these “bugs” are tiny, the damage they can cause to a garden is immense. It is estimated that spider mites cause roughly 5-7 percent of agricultural damage around the world. If you take a stroll through your garden or greenhouse, and you find that the leaves on some of your plants have tiny holes in them, chances are good that the damage was the work of spider mites. Luckily, while these obnoxious pests are intrusive, they do not have to be permanent fixtures in your garden.

Spider mites cause so much damage, ultimately, because they ruin the waterproof qualities of the leaf surface. The mite first pierces through the surface and begins taking in the fluid and cells of the leaf. A leaf that a mite has victimized, will no longer be able to control the amount of water that escapes, and will end up drying up, usually losing all of its typically green pigmentation. One would think that since a mite is so small that there would have to be a subsequently large infestation; however, even a small infestation can wreak havoc on a garden.

There are two fairly common ways to combat against an infestation of spider mites, and they are through pesticides and similar treatments, and, believe it or not, other insects. However, pesticides are becoming less and less popular because they are becoming less and less effective. The reason being is because spider mites can actually build up a resistance towards pesticides thereby rendering it useless. Still, some gardeners will swear by certain pesticides, chemicals, and specialized treatments, and if it works for them, then all power to them. The best way to find out what works and what does not, is to get out in your garden and actually find out.

While it seems a bit unorthodox to release even more insects into your garden, one of the very most popular ways to eliminate, or at the least, reduce a spider mite infestation, is by releasing insects that prey upon the mites. In all actuality, the best insect for getting rid of spider mites is another type of mite, simply referred to as predator mites. Predator mites take after their name and actually make supper out of spider mites, in effect, saving your garden. Even better is that it does not take a very large supply of predator mites to decimate a spider mite infestation because of reproduction. Predator mites tend to reproduce rapidly, creating even more mouths to feed.

Do not let your garden, the very same garden you sunk all your time, effort, and money into, go to waste because of pesky, little spider mites. Instead, fight back and take control of your garden and restore the natural beauty of your plants. A spider mite infestation can be fought against through the use of pesticides and even other insects. Although pesticides are not as highly favorable as the predator mite option, a lot of gardeners still find great success through them and other treatments. Regardless of what treatment you use, most options are available online.

© 2011 Andrew Brusnahan

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Guide to Growing Carrots and Care

Carrots are a great vegetable to grow however; one must follow certain guidelines if he/she wants his/her carrots to be the best in appearance and taste. Rich in vitamin A, carrots are best flavored when they are fully mature and therefore deeply colored. The right time to sow carrot seeds is early spring when the ground is a little loose and workable. The carrot seeds are slow in germinating and may take up to several weeks before finally breaking out. For this time, the seeds must be kept moist, evenly to enable germination.

Sowing of carrot seedscarrot stock mass

Before sowing the needs, ensure that the soil is stone-free, moist and cool. Sow the carrot seeds half an inch deep with the width between the seeds being the same. As the carrot seeds take nearly one to three weeks to germinate and break out of the soil, radishes can be planted along side to loosen the soil. The soil should be well-drained and the site must get good sun to enable the carrot seeds to germinate. If the soil is dry, then you can water it daily to speed the process of germination. The ph of the soil must be around 6.5 and it must be weed and stone free so that the roots are not deformed.

Maintaining and taking care of carrots

Although a successful carrot crop can be obtained if there is full sun, yet light shading is effectively tolerated by carrot seedlings. Since carrots are moderate feeders, green and fresh animal manures must not be used when planting carrots. However, moisture is essential for a good root formation. An essential step while taking care of carrot plants is that of thinning. This is the process of thinning the plants before they are 2 inches tall to reduce competition from the other neighboring plants.

Harvesting of carrotscolorful purple carrot

The best part about carrots is that they can be harvested anytime throughout their life cycle. To get baby carrots for salads, you can thin the carrots in stages. Otherwise let the carrots turn bright orange and harvest them after 2 – 3 months after being planted. Carrots can remain fresh in the soil for months even if frost destroys their tops. Therefore, you may leave the carrots in the soil until the soil starts freezing. Small amounts of carrots can be picked as and when required. However, you must take care to not harm the roots while picking. You can simply pull up the tops and loosen the root before it pulls out. Shake off the excess soil, wash it and then store in an airtight bag.

There are certain plants that can be planted along with carrots and these include radish, bean, leek, tomato, cabbage, onion, chive, leaf lettuce, pea, pepper and Brussels sprouts. To get the best carrot crop change the spot of planting them so that they do not catch diseases. You can even harvest the seeds from your carrots by pruning the umbels of flowers when they start turning dry and brown. The best seeds are from the first and second umbels of flowers that appear on the carrot plant.

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Seasonal Care in Apiculture

SPRING CARE
In order to take the desired yield from apiculture, it is important to consider the works necessary to be carried out every season. The works are densely carried out in spring season.

The aim of the spring controls is to check what the bees do in winter season, current food amount in hive, presence and ovulation aspect of queen bee, number of worker bees and whether there are fusty honeycombs or diseases inside the hive.

The first control: if the colonies are wintered in closed areas, time for driving out show differences according to regions.

The colonies are wintered in open areas in most regions and coastal areas of our country. The first controls of the colonies which were wintered in closed areas and driven out or which were wintered in open areas can be done between 11 am and 2 pm on condition that the weather temperature is over 57-62 degrees on sunny days beginning from the time when weather gets warm and plum trees come into blossom. The colonies should not be caused to catch cold especially on first controls. It should not be forgotten that if the colonies catch cold, the bees should eat honey on great levels in order to increase the temperature to 94 degrees which is necessary for growing a brood and this case can create an environment suitable for diseases. On six frame hives, 40-80 gr. honey is consumed daily according to the hive type for increasing the temperature by 50 degrees.
When the bees go for flying, hive bottom board is cleaned. One can get information about the colony by looking over scraps and residues on hive bottom board. The boards which are damp and include water should be changed rapidly. If the bottom board is fixed to hive body, the cleaning and change is done together with hive body.

In frame control, if the frames contain fusty, heavy darkened and broken combs, these frames should be removed from the hive and replaced by neat combs of previous year when necessary. If there is no processed comb, comb foundation can be used instead. If the existing bee amount inside the hive does not fill the frames, the frames without bee are removed and the area is narrowed. The half of the incubation frames are changed every year.

Presence of queen bee in colony directly affects the permanency of the colony. As a result of the controls, if it is seen that there is no queen bee in colony, it is important to check whether there is a daily egg or not. If there is a daily egg in colony, so it can be said that there is also a queen bee. On the other hand if it is understood that the colony does not include a queen bee, a new queen bee should be given to the colony or the colony should be joined with another colony.

The aim of food control is to determine honey and pollen amount in colony. As a result of the controls in early spring, if it is seen that the food stock is inefficient, the feeding can be met by sugar syrup or bee bread made of honey and caster sugar. The feeding in this period contributes both to hunger risk and to the development of the colony. The production of given breads is subject to production license.

So disease and parasite control it is important to be careful about some diseases such as nosema, foul brood and other ones caused by parasites. Early spring combat against varroa parasite should be carried out accurately in a proper time and dosage through licensed chemicals. In case of finding a disease or hesitating about a disease, it is important to consult an expert.
Spring feeding is a feeding done for encouraging brood growth if the food sources inside the hive are insufficient as per quality and amount. Spring feeding should be done with syrup made of 1 scale of sugar and 1 scale of water.

The feeding sugar to be used should be refined sugar and other foods should not be given. Because robbing is possible for syrup feedings done in spring, some measures should be taken and the feeding should be done at the late hours of evening.

Other food necessary for the growth of the colony in early spring is pollen. If there is not enough pollen, the feeding can be done with bee bread made of honey and pollen. It should not be forgotten that in case there is no pollen, brood production is halted.

Swarm means the formation of a new family by queen bee and some bees in colony leaving the colony for maintaining the generation of honey bees. In technical apiculture, it is not desired for a colony to give swarm because the swarm lowers the power of colony, and opposite measures are taken in such cases. The conditions supporting the colony to give swarm can be listed as; excessive increase of bee number, absence of honey stocking area, increase of the temperature inside the colony, aging of queen bee and genetic structure. The case of removing and preventing the conditions supporting swarm giving is an important rule of technical and economic apiculture.

In order to increase the colony number, artificial swarm can be produced by dividing a strong colony into two parts. The combs including bees, honey and brood are divided into two hives equally. It is important to enable the equal division of field bees to both colonies.

For this aim, parent colony is slide to left or right by half meter and a new colony is replaced by leaving the old flying direction in the middle of parent colony and the new colony.

Another method for producing artificial swarm is the formation of a 5 framed chamber from a hive especially for increasing colony number. In this case, 3 frames with bees- broods and 2 frames with bees-honey are replaced with the new hive. These hives whose flight entrances are closed are carried to at least 5 meters ahead in order to prevent field bees from returning old hive place. Technical swarms which have newly been divided make a queen bee or a mated queen bee is given to the colony.

Keeping record is also important for apiculture as for all other production areas. A card or registration document should be kept for each hive. By processing the information in every colony control, the works to be done later are planned. The information related with the condition of broods; pollen and honey amount; origin, ovulation date and driving out time of queen bee should be included within the records.

Following the spring care, the care and controls of bee colonies continue in summer season. With the development of the colony, putting on frame and super, flora control and honey harvest are the works of summer season.

The bees start to make honeycombs when they start growing activities. New basic combs are given to the colony in this period. When the hive becomes proper for incubation, the hive should be put on super in other words honey chamber. While putting on super, at least two frames with honey are taken to the super. New combs are given instead of them. The super with some new combs and combs with honey are placed onto the hive of incubation.
In technical apiculture, the transfer of the bees from one place to another in accordance with the flora condition is compulsory for taking good yield. This can be named as migratory beekeeping.

Honey harvest in our country is made generally in summer months. By evaporating the excessive water, matured combs more than half of which are capped are harvested. Honey harvest should be made on frames not including brood on honey chambers and the materials to be used should comply with Turkish Food Codex.

AUTUMN CARE AND WINTERING

The autumn care of the colonies carries great importance for a good winter for the bees. In autumn, the combs stocking honey and pollen as winter food should be left to the colonies. Rancid and low quality honey should not be given to the bees as winter food.
Young queen bee should be given to the colonies including few bees or old and infertile queen bee or not including a queen bee. If there is no queen bee, the colonies should be joined together in autumn.

For a successful wintering, brood production should be provided in autumn and the colony should enter the winter with young worker bees. Before winter, the colonies should be analyzed for reportable diseases such as American foul brood and especially varroa combat of autumn period should be made with licensed chemicals in sufficient dosages following the last honey harvest.

Autumn feeding

Although honey and pollen in a sufficient amount is left to the colonies, the colonies should be fed with sugar syrup made of 2 scales of sugar and 1 scale of water. On the other hand, at the beginning or at the end of the winter, they should be fed with bee bread. The bread is made from the mix of 1 scale of honey and 3 scales of caster sugar. The bread package weighing 0,5-1 kg and including holes on the bottom of it is placed onto frames with bees. While preparing and applying the bread, it should be hard enough in order not to melt under the temperature of hive and it should be smooth enough to be consumed by the bees.

Wintering

The winter place of the bees should be close to north direction, open to the south direction and its top should be closed if possible. The places should be dry and safe from wind and wetness. The hives should be raised with an easel for the protection from water and damp.
Moreover, in order not to damage the winter cluster, the wintering place should be remote from noise and boom. It should not be forgotten that the reason for winter deaths is not cold but the absence of sufficient honey in other words starvation.

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